Machu Picchu

machu-picchu

Machu Picchu is a pre-Columbian Inca site located 2,430 metres (8,000 ft) above sea level. It is situated on a mountain ridge above the Urubamba Valley in Peru, which is 80 kilometres (50 mi) northwest of Cuzco and through which the Urubamba River flows. Often referred to as “The Lost City of the Incas”, Machu Picchu is one of the most familiar symbols of the Inca Empire.

The Incas started building it around AD 1430 but was abandoned as an official site for the Inca rulers a hundred years later at the time of the Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire. Although known locally, it was largely unknown to the outside world before being brought to international attention in 1911 by Hiram Bingham, an American historian. Since then, Machu Picchu has become an important tourist attraction.

Machu Picchu was declared a Peruvian Historical Sanctuary in 1981 and a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1983. Since it was not plundered by the Spanish when they conquered the Incas, it is especially important as a cultural site and is considered a sacred place.

Machu Picchu was built in the classical Inca style, with polished dry-stone walls. Its primary buildings are the Intihuatana, the Temple of the Sun, and the Room of the Three Windows. These are located in what is known by archaeologists as the Sacred District of Machu Picchu. In September 2007, Peru and Yale University reached an agreement regarding the return of artifacts which Hiram Bingham had removed from Machu Picchu in the early twentieth century.

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Amazon Basin or Low Amazon

The eastern portions of Peru includes the Amazon Basin or selva baja, a region that is larger in the north than in the south. Representing roughly 60% of Peru’s national territory, this area includes the Amazon, Marañón, Huallaga and Ucayali Rivers. It is a vast tropical forest with countless rivers and streams. Rainfall varies from 2000 to 4000 mm per year.

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Apurimac River

Apurimac River is in the middle of Peru, in the Central Andes, at the foot of the mountains of Cordillera de Chilca with a length of 890 km. Source Amazon river.

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Industry

The basis of the economy is mining and export of copper ore, zinc, lead, iron, crude oil and natural gas, bismuth, mercury, molybdenum, antimony, silver (3rd place in the world), gold and guano.

The processing industry (smelting of copper and iron ore enrichment plants) from the age of 80 is constantly expanded. In the country there is also the food industry, mainly sugar, fish processing and milling industries, textiles, transport (assembly of Volvo trucks in Lima), chemical, cement, tanning and Refinery.

Location industrial centers in Peru is uneven – 50% of industry is concentrated around Lima, Trujillo and Arequipy.

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Classical tours

The most well-traveled route starts in Lima, with its colonial buildings and museums, then according to the Nazca into the ground gescharrten huge figures. Then the White visited the city of Arequipa. The city within a city, the Convent of Santa Catalina, and excursions into the valley of condors (de Colca Canyon – two to three day hike) here on the program. Then it goes on to Puno on Lake Titicaca. Besides sightseeing tours take place on Lake Titicaca to the floating islands of the Uros, after Taquile and the sun and moon island.

The highlight of the trip is Cuzco, with the many legacies of the Incas and a not very cheap Tagesauflug to Machu Picchu. If you have enough time and money remains, also includes a brief round trip detour into the jungle, or what the Manu National Park must be saddled. Next, it’s usually the starting point for Lima back. This route carries the nickname “Gringo Trail” (from the Spanish name for a white Gringo foreigners).

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Climate

The climate of Colombia is determined by its proximity to the Earth’s Equator predominating a tropical and isothermal climate, presenting variations within five natural regions and depending on the altitude; determined by mountain climate, temperature, humidity, and winds; influenced by the trade winds and precipitation which is influenced by the Intertropical Convergence Zone. Colombia is also affected by the effects of the El Niño and La Niña.

Temperatures generally decrease about 3.5 °F (2 °C) for every 1,000-foot (300-m) increase in altitude above sea level, presenting perpetual snowy peaks to lower hot lands. Rainfall varies by location and is present in two seasons (two dry and two rainy) in Colombia presenting one of the highest rainfalls in the world in the Pacific region. Rainfall in parts of the Guajira Peninsula seldom exceeds 30 in (75 cm) per year. Colombia’s rainy southeast, however, is often drenched by more than 200 in (500 cm) of rain per year. Rainfall in most of the rest of the country runs between these two extremes.

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Etymology

The word Peru is derived from Birú, the name of a local ruler who lived near the Bay of San Miguel, Panama, in the early 16th century.When his possessions were visited by Spanish explorers in 1522, they were the southernmost part of the New World yet known to Europeans.Thus, when Francisco Pizarro explored the regions farther south, they came to be designated Birú or Peru. The Spanish Crown gave the name legal status with the 1529 Capitulación de Toledo, which designated the newly encountered Inca Empire as the province of Peru Under Spanish rule, the country adopted the denomination Viceroyalty of Peru, which became Republic of Peru after independence.

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